Exercise is essential

A program of prevention of osteoporosis must:

The main points to consider are:

  1. Dietary calcium intake
  2. Vitamin D
  3. Exercise
  4. Reduced tobacco and alcohol use


A diet rich in calcium is important, particularly in the growing skeleton before the peak bone mass is reached [see peak bone mass and calcium].

Vitamin D

Aids in the absorption of calcium from the diet and can be obtained directly from exposure to sunlight. It is particularly important for elderly patients or those patients in nursing homes.

Weight bearing exercise

Improves general health. Exercise improves muscle strength which increases balance and helps to reduce the incidence of falling.

Reduce tobacco use

Smokers tend to be thinner, undergo an earlier natural menopause and have more fractures.